Standard Test Method
(Analytical Procedure) for Determining the Transmissivity of
Nonleaky Confined Aquifers by Overdamped Well Response
to Instantaneous Change in Head (Slug Tests)1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation D 4104; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of the last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
1.1 This test method covers the determination of transmissivity from the measurement of force-free (overdamped) response of a well-aquifer system to a sudden change of water
level in a well. Force-free response of water level in a well to
a sudden change in water level is characterized by recovery to
the initial water level in an approximately exponential manner with
negligible inertial effects.
1.2 The analytical procedure in this test method is used in
conjunction with the field procedure in Test Method D 4044 for
collection of test data.
1.3 Limitations—Slug tests are considered to provide an
estimate of transmissivity. Although the assumptions of this
test method prescribes a fully penetrating well (a well open
through the full thickness of the aquifer), the slug test method
is commonly conducted using a partially penetrating well.
Such a practice may be acceptable for application under
conditions in which the aquifer is stratified and horizontal
hydraulic conductivity is much greater than vertical hydraulic
conductivity. In such a case the test would be considered to be
representative of the average hydraulic conductivity of the
a portion of the aquifer adjacent to the open interval of the well.
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the
safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1 ASTM Standards:
D 653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained
D 4043 Guide for Selection of Aquifer-Test Method in
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