Standard Terminology Relating to
Petroleum, Petroleum Products, and Lubricants1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation D 4175; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of the last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.
1.1 This standard is the compilation of terminology developed by Committee D02 on Petroleum Products and Lubricants, except that it does not include terms/definitions specific
only to the standards by which they appear.
1.1.1 The terminology, mostly definitions, is unique to
petroleum, petroleum products, and lubricants. Meanings of
the same terms outside of applications to petroleum, petroleum
products and lubricants can be found in other compilations and
in dictionaries of general usage.
1.1.2 The terms/definitions exist in two places (1) in the
standards in which they appear and (2) in this compilation.
2.1 Alphabetical listing of terms with definitions for each
term showing attributions as to source and subcommittee
jurisdiction is in bold print following the definition. Those
showing no attributes are under the jurisdiction of Subcommittee CS 95. Some abbreviations, acronyms, and symbols are
included in the list.
abrasion, n—wear by displacement of material caused by hard
particles or hard protuberances. D 4998
abrasive wear—wear due to hard particles or hard protuberances forced against and moving along a solid surface.
absolute filtration rating, n—the diameter of the largest hard
a spherical particle that will pass through a filter under
specified test conditions. This is an indication of the largest
opening in the filter element. D 4174
absorbance, A, n—the molecular property of a substance that
determines its ability to take up radiant power, expressed by:
A 5 log10 ~1/T! 5 –log10T
where T is the transmittance as defined in 3.1.3.
DISCUSSION—Absorbance expresses the excess absorption over that
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